The extreme rights uses smaller social media platforms stronger for their political purposes. A new study examines the phanomena
On alternative platforms, extremely rights users will find a digital jerking resort to cross and radicalize unsteady. To this result comes a study entitled "The online okosystem right-wing extremist actors", which was published by the Institute for Strategic Dialogue (ISD) from London (collapse in German). For the investigation, the research team has systematically analyzed ten platforms of Internet communities used in Germany, including the Russian Social Networks VK, the microblogging service, the Gaming app Discord, the Internet Forum 4chan and the Messenger Telegram. The study thus focuses existing examinations focusing on Hate Speech at Gross platforms like Facebook, YouTube and Twitter.
The data of the Institute for Strategic Dialogue indicates that right-wing extreme topics are highly represented on alternative platforms. Thus, in the ten online services, a total of 379 right-wing populist and extremely right channels were identified. The content focuses on these channels on the subject of migration as well as on infants against left political opponents. The large range obviously has groups from the environment of the identile movement, which are classified as clearly right-wing extremist from the Federal Office for Future Protection. On the pictureboard 4chan, however, anti-Semitic exercises are widespread. There, more than half of all posts represented by Jews anti-Semitic positions.
Based on the community standards, platforms can be roughly divided into two groups. On the one hand, these providers developed for unpolitical purposes and are misused from right actors, as is the case with the Gaming App Discord. On the other hand, serves such as telegram or CAP, which justify the dissemination of right-wing extremists and racist messages based on freedom of expression. In particular, telegram has therefore developed the most important platform of extremely right influencers and groups whose contents were laid or blocked on the established social media platforms.
From YouTube to Telegram
The jerking of the right scene from the gross platforms has already started in 2018, because hate messages were quickly blocked on Facebook, Twitter or YouTube. Martin Sellner, Speaker of the Identile Movement Austria, had at that time in a video message encouraged his appendant to a change to telegram to build a political basis here. He is now 37.600 subscribers and also for the channel of the Pegida Grinder Lutz Bachmann are already interested in 12.000 users.
The authors of the study on the online ok system of right-wing extremer actors see this as a result of the network translation law (networkDG), which was adopted in June 2017 to respond to the rising dissemination of Hate Speech in the German-speaking Internet. It obliges rough social media companies in Germany to remove illegal content from their platforms and remove completely. From the beginning, the law was accompanied by a controversial debate because critics saw and see a restriction of freedom of expression. Also Facebook himself had resisted against the legislation and explained in an opinion, the law is unsuitable to get phanomena such as Hate Speech.
The scientists from London, on the other hand, see the risk that the NetzDG urges the right scene in closed alternative platforms that are currently not regulated by the law. So political actors actually lose a coarse part of their followers if they have to change from established social media providers on alternative platforms. However, those users who sign up at Telegram, VK or gave way to continue to observe right influencers, followed by significant radicalization afterwards.
Relationship with right terror
The study is addressed in the study also the interplay of right terrorism and social media. About this connection was already discussed according to the legal terrorist attack of Halle, Christchurch (New Zealand) and Poway (USA). The attack on the synagogue in Halle has transferred the tader live on Twitch, the video was then distributed via telegram. For his connection, the tatter was also celebrated on alternative platforms — especially in 4chan -.
Even after the youngest assassination in Hanau, the right scene in the network reacts with admiration for the tatter, while the victims of the attack on stressed channels are even mocked. Again, alternatives are used to the coarse social media platforms to disseminate the letter of confrees.
The scientists from the ISD emphasize a connection between violence against minorities and political agitation of the new rights. "The posts are often disproportionately focused on the negative consequences of immigration. As we have learned from the manifest right-wing-extremist attack, right-wing extreme ideas such as the intensity theory of ‘gross exchange’ inspire extremist violence and terrorism without actively invoking violence", Means Julia Ebner, extremism researcher and author of the study.
In addition, alternative platforms play an important role in the dissemination of disinformation, the coordinated dilation of politicians and organizing so-called meme campaigns to influence elections and political debates. In these areas, which moving away from established structures of extreme rights, the previous maws against Hate Speech are largely ineffective.
Even tech companies have a due diligence
From their analysis, the researchers derive recommendations for politicians and tech companies. Since legal terrorism has been organized beyond solid structures for several years, the policy should not rely on a ban on legal terrorist groups in dealing with the extreme rights in social media. According to the ISD, many social media companies in relation to the official ban on governments or the United Nations have relyed on which, however, on which Islamist terrorist groups are mainly. Therefore, democratic governments and non-private companies should be stated in accordance with coordination with researchers and civil society, which exceeds influencers or communities on the Internet exceed the necessary legal thresholds so that their contents can be removed or their accounts can be blocked.
The perhaps the challenge, however, is the question of how to proceed with the huge amount of legal online content that contributes to a social mood in racism and hatred against minorities to normalized. In order to prevent unwanted networking of right actors, the technological architecture of the platforms must be considered. "It is important to understand how the alternative platforms are built, who operates you and what dynamics you have to find start-up points for a suitable handling of right-wing extremism on the Internet." recommends Sandra Breka, businessman of the Robert Bosch Foundation, which financed the study of the Institute for Strategic Dialogue,
In addition, the authors emphasize "The online okosystem right-wing extremist actors" The diligence of the companies responsible for the security of their users. They demand a better protection of those people who are considered and struck on social media. Targeted campaigns, with whom individuals and individuals of public life are to be silenced, are shiny overproportionally against social minorities and women. For those affected, ISD calls for better legal and psychosocial support as well as the consistent application of existing laws.